What programming languages do what?

Here is the list of computer programming languages and their use:
  • Java - the general-purpose enterprise standard heavily used for server-side web development; used to write Android apps
  • Python - general-purpose scripting language, popular for numerical computing, financial industry, web development, etc.
  • PHP - used for server-side web development
  • C# - general-purpose and largely Windows-centric
  • C++ - general-purpose and high-performance; used for nearly everything, esp. financial industry, scientific computing, game development
  • C - used for writing operating systems, device drivers, embedded software, base libraries, etc., the very foundation of IT
  • JavaScript - the native language of the web browser; also used server-side in Node.js
  • Perl - general-purpose scripting language, once very popular, but has since fallen out of favour
  • Ruby - best known for Rails, a server-side web framework
  • Matlab/Octave/R - languages specializing in statistical analysis
Important languages to watch for:
  • Objective-C - used for writing iOS apps
  • Swift - Objective-C’s anointed successor
  • Go - Modern replacement for C with aim for targeting concurrency problems; destined to be a major language (Top 10)
  • Scala - general-purpose language that competes with Java; works well with the Play framework
  • D - a better C++
  • Groovy - a dynamically and statically typed (!!) competitor for Java in web development; used with the Grails framework
Interesting languages to watch for:
  • Haskell - a pure functional programming language
  • Clojure - another functional programming language like lisp; competes with Java
  • Elixir - yet another functional programming language; notable for very fast concurrency
  • Julia - general-purpose language esp. suited to numerical computing and visualization
  • Kotlin - potentially, a much improved Java replacement
  • Rust - a language that competes with C++ for safe, reliable computing
Other notable languages:
  • Smalltalk - beautifully simple and elegant language; the father of modern OOP
  • Scheme/Elisp - simple and elegant lisp for functional programming for making GNU extensions easily.
  • Fortran - the father of scientific number-crunching; still used for modelling and simulations!
  • Cobol - the first enterprise language; verbose as heck; legacy demands make Cobol jobs hard to fill, but they pay well!

                                                                  
                                                                  
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